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Immunotherapy reverses cancer’s ability to evade the immune system. A variety of strategies can accomplish this, including using antibodies to help identify markers on tumor cells. Recently, we have also seen the emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors. These are antibodies that block proteins that tell the immune system to “stop” when near the tumor. By relieving this inhibition, we can promote an immune response.

There are many other forms of immunotherapy, as well. CAR-T cells would be the most notable and recent of these. However, there are also vaccines, either cell-based, peptide-based, or pathogen-based. Other immunotherapies can generally ramp up the body’s immune system, such as cytokine treatment.

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